Adult Forearm Fractures

Orthopedic Article by Dr. Darren Keiser MD

Adult forearm fractures can occur near the wrist at the farthest end of the bone, in the middle of the forearm, or near the elbow at the top (proximal) end of the bone. This article focuses on fractures that occur in the middle segments of the radius and ulna. Fractures that involve the wrist or the elbow are discussed in separate articles.

Anatomy

adult forearm fracturesIf you hold your arms at your side with your palms facing up, the ulna is the bone closest to your body and the radius is closest to your thumb. The ulna is larger at the elbow — it forms the “point” of your elbow — and the radius is larger at the wrist.

The primary motion of the forearm is rotation: the ability to turn our palms up or down. The ulna stays still while the radius rotates around it. This is the motion used to turn a screwdriver or twist in a light bulb. Forearm fractures can affect your ability to rotate your arm, as well as bend and straighten the wrist and elbow.

Description

Forearm bones can break in several ways. The bone can crack just slightly, or can break into many pieces. The broken pieces of bone may line up straight or may be far out of place. In some cases, the bone will break in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone. This is called an open fracture and requires immediate medical attention because of the risk for infection.

Because of the strong force required to break the radius or ulna in the middle of the bone, it is more common for adults to break both bones during a forearm injury. When only one bone in the forearm is broken, it is typically the ulna — usually as a result of a direct blow to the outside of your arm when you have it raised in self defense.

Cause

The most common causes of forearm fractures include:

> Direct blow

> Fall on an outstretched arm, often during sports or from a height

> Automobile/motorcycle accidents

Symptoms

A broken forearm usually causes immediate pain. Because both bones are usually involved, forearm fractures often cause an obvious deformity — your forearm may appear bent and shorter than your other arm. You will most likely need to support your injured arm with your other hand.

Additional symptoms include:adult forearm
> Swelling

> Bruising (not as common as in other broken bones)

> Inability to rotate arm

> Numbness or weakness in the fingers or wrist (rare)

Treatment

Treatment of broken bones follows one basic rule: the broken pieces must be put back into position and prevented from moving out of place until they are healed. Because the radius and ulna rely on each other for support, it is important that they are properly stabilized. If the bones are not accurately aligned during healing, it may result in future problems with wrist and elbow movement.

Most cases of adult forearm fractures require surgery to make sure the bones are stabilized and lined up for successful healing.

**Call the office of Dr. Darren Keiser to set up an appointment

Article URL: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00584&webid=2FDDE053